Situated on the southern margin of the major Amadeus sedimentary basin, the park comprises extensive sand plains, dunes and desert, punctuated by the Uluru monolith.
Uluru is composed of hard sandstone which has been exposed as a result of folding, faulting and the erosion of surrounding rock. The monolith has a base circumference of 9.4 km, smooth sloping sides and a relatively flat top.
The park, and in particular Uluru, is one of several equally important and interconnected centres of local and religious significance scattered throughout the extensive area of western central Australia occupied by Aborigines.
Cave paintings on Uluru, some of which are considered to be ancient, indicate the length of time Aborigines have been present in the area.
The site is an outstanding example of a traditional human settlement representative of Aboriginal culture, directly associated with religious and cultural traditions.